http://www.worldpharmanews.com/research/2041-ucla-engineered-stem-cells-seek-out-and-kill-hiv-in-living-organisms

Read the article above and answer the following questions:

How does HIV/AID affect the human immune system?
What makes this recent research unique?
What is the potential weakness in this research?
What was the test subject? And why was this choice made?
What is the next step for the future research in the area of HIV/AIDS?
What may this research mean for HIV/AIDS patients?

 


MYLES MALONE
05/06/2012 1:53pm

1) CD4 T cells, which are white blood cells, are important for our immune system because they help fight off infections. When a person is HIV/AIDS infected, these CD4 white cells become depleted while the levels of HIV in the blood increases. The human immune system then becomes extremely weakened, cannot fight off infections and eventually leads to death.

2) What makes this recent research unique is that previously human stem cells could be genetically engineered into HIV fighting cells, but now it has been demonstrated for the 1st time that engineered stem cells can form immune cells that actually target and attack HIV infected cells which could put an end to the virus in a living organism.

3) The potential weakness in this research is that the human immune cells reconstructed at a lower level in the mice then they would in humans, so the researchers might have to use more engineered T cell receptors to adjust got the higher potential for HIV mutation in humans.

4) The test subjects were mice that were implanted with human thymus tissue that had been genetically engineered with human blood stem cells. These mice were called humanized mice and they were used because the HIV infection in them closely resembled the disease and its progression in humans. Using mice allowed the scientists to study the reaction in a living organism without having to test directly on a human because that could be risky.

5) The next step for future research in the area of HIV/AIDS is that the researchers will begin making T cell receptors that target different parts of HIV and that can be used in more genetically matched people.

6) What this research means for HIV/AIDS patients is that soon we may be able to totally eliminate the HIV virus from the human body. This would be great because for years we have only been able to control HIV through medications but we haven't been able to get rid of these cells in infected people. Then people won't have to die anymore from this disease and hopefully in the future we will even be able to cure other diseases like cancer and diabetes as well.

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JALYN
05/07/2012 4:38pm

HIV/AID affects the human immune system because it suppresses the virus in living organisms. T cells are able to kill the HIV-infected cells but don’t exist in great enough quantities to clear the virus from the body. This recent research is unique because some people may have it and may want to know if they can get rid of it or will they have to fight it off their whole life. The potential weakness in this research is human immune cells reconstituted at a lower level in the humanized mice than they would in humans and a result was that the mice’s immune system was mostly reconstructed. The test subject was surrogate model, or a humanized mouse. This choice was made because the HIV infection closely resembles the disease and its progression in humans. The next stop for the future research in the area of HIV/AIDS is begin to make T cell receptors that target different parts of HIV and that can be used in more genetically matched individuals. This research for HIV/AID patients may mean that they can be happy that there may be a cure.

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Aaron Gregory
05/07/2012 6:42pm

Hiv affects the ImmUne system by killing all of the immunity cells. The weakness In this research is that sOmething could go wrong and make it worse. The test subjet was a mouse. The next step would be to attack the other parts of HIV. This will give the HIV patients hope.

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05/08/2012 5:09pm

1. it shut the immune system down wich lets a cold stay for as long as it wants.
2. Its unique because its trying to help with HIV to fight of there virus by useing their own cells.
3. The weekness in this reasearch is it might not work and if the immune system is down then how are you going to fight against it.
4. living tisu in an animal modle is what they used to test it and so that it wouldnt be crewl if it didnt work out as they want it to
5. it is going to be a more agresive approch on t cells
6. The research means for HIV patients is that there still is a chance that they can be heald.

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Terrell Dawkins
05/08/2012 6:13pm

HIV affects the immune system greatly because it can place a virus in your body and mostlikley make you very sick. It could also be passed on to other people. This research is very unique because no one has ever heard of any HIV fighting cells that can kill any HIV virus's in your body. Also because it will be able to help an animal cell too. There is one weakness in this research, this weakness is that even though the HIV cells will be able to fight the virus it won't be able to remove the virus completely form the body. The test subject that was chosen to be tested was a mouse. They cohse the mouse because it was the animal that could give a diesease that closely resembles HIV. Their next step is to make T cells that can different parts of HIV that could be used more genectically. To patients who have HIV, this means that they can have a little relief that this diesease won't be that much of a problem for them anymore.

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Carlos Washington
05/08/2012 9:07pm

How does HIV/AID affect the human immune system? HIV affects the T-cells in the immune system.

What makes this recent research unique? They took a human cell and put it in the mice.

What is the potential weakness in this research? Human immune cells reconstituted at a lower level in the humanized mice than they wold a human.

What was the test subject? Mice that had engineered stem cells placed into human thymus tissue.

And why was this choice made? To study the reaction in a living organism.

What is the next step for the future research in the area of HIV/AIDS? They will now begin making t-cell receptors that target different parts of HIV and that could be used in more genetically matched individuals.

What may this research mean for HIV/AID patients? Hopefully they may find a cure.

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Carlos Washington
05/08/2012 9:08pm

Did it post?

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Danyel Royster
05/08/2012 10:04pm

Hiv can effect you and your immune system. It effects living cells that are in your body. This recent research about hiv is unique because they were trying to make a model off of animals to present it as like a human being or juss trying to see the actually effect of it. The potential weakness of this research is that the T cells dont really match up until its mature. Then the cells may can react and he to fight aganist the hiv. The test subject as i stated before was an animal but a mouse to be exact. This choice was made because they wanted to see the life of how hiv really worked and how it reacted to your body. Also to see if the t cells helped the problem. The next step is to see what is causing it not to react and also to help it mature. I think this research will help alot of people with aids they would really apreciate it because i know its not fun living with a disease like that because its really harmful to your body and love one you could die any second . They would really appreciate the fact that somebody out there cares for them.

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KAMILL
05/09/2012 10:45am

1. IF YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM FIGHTS OFF INFECTIONS IT WOULDNT MAKE SENSE FOR AN INFECTION TO COME IN AND FLOOD IT OUT BECAUSE IT AFFECTS YOUR WHOLE BODY.
2.IT MAKES IT UNIQUE BECAUSE MOST PEOPLE DO NOT REALLY KNOW ABOUT IT AND YOU CAN DIE OFF OF IT, ALSO TO ME ITS COOL BECAUSE ONE THING CAN LEAD TO ANOTHER WHICH LEADS TO A BIG MESS,IT STARTS WITH ONE DESICION.
3.I THINK THE POTENTIAL WEAKNESS WOULD BE THE INFECTED CELLS.
4. IT WAS ON HIV AID INFECTIONS AND IT WAS MADE BECAUSE THE GROUNDWORK NEEDED TO BE LAID OUT.
5. THE NEXT STEP WILL BE T CELLS.
6. IT MAY MEAN THAT THEY ARE INFECTED IN THEIR BODY AND ARE AT RISK OF DEATH.

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Terrence
05/09/2012 2:03pm

HIV is known to kill T cells because there is not enough to fight them off. It's unique because it is first to demonstrate engineering stem cells to form immune cells that target HIV is effective in suppressing the virus in living tissues in an animal model. The weakness in the research is that the (human) immune cell came back at a lower level in the mice than they would in humans and as a result the mice's immune systems were mostly reconstructed. The test subject was obviously mice not ordinary mice humanized mice. Because the development of HIV in their bodies are similar to humans. The scientists will start to make T receptors. It means for HIV/AIDS will have a temporary cure and less immune system problems. And it may be an outlet to other researches for a full-in cure.

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jeremiah franklin
05/09/2012 4:16pm

1.It weakens the immune system by killing t-cells which allows AIDS to enter. 2.They have to specifically matched to an individual with HIV.3.Human immune cells reconstruct at a lower level in the humanized mice than they would in humans, and as a result, the mice's immune system mostly reconstructed.4.They used a humanized mouse because in it an HIV infection closely resembles the disease and its progression in humans.5.They will begin making T-cells receptors that target different parts of HIV and that can be used in more genetically matched individuals.6. That there is a new way for them to be healed.

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Zion
05/09/2012 4:30pm

HIV and AIDS are serious diseases. They both lower your white blood cell count making you more vulnerable to diseases and causing almost all sicknesses to be able to kill you. This research is unique because it shows results from a live test subject with the disease being given stem cells which will be able to create mature cells to specifically fight against the disease. The weakness found in their research is that the mouse's immune system was almost entirely reconstructed to be more human. This slowed the mutation for the mouse ,but as a result they don't have conclusive data on how it will affect humans. The mouse was chosen in the first place because the development of the HIV virus in mice is similar to it's development in humans. Scientists are now looking for more aggressive ways to make it so that the T cells work efficiently and destroy specific parts of the disease so that they it can be destroyed by individuals who can't combat those parts. This will bring much hope to those infected as it is showing signs that a cure is close at hand and hope for a return to normal.

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Madison
05/09/2012 5:59pm

The HIV/AID virus affects the human immune system by it weakens the immune system so it is easir for you to get an infection. This recent research is unique because it uses human stem cells. The potential weakness is that the test subjects (mice) immune system was almost completely reconstructed. The test subject was mice. This choice in test subjects was made because they could put human stem cells in them to see how the virus would work on humans. The next step in the future research would be to try it on humans. this research may mean a cure for HIV/AIDS patients.

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Harlan Lyles
05/09/2012 6:11pm

HIV/AID affects the human immune system by making it weak and unable to fight off infections. The article we just read talks about the use of human stem cells being engineered into the immune cells to fight off the disease of HIV/AID. The test subjects for this research were mice. They were used to study the reaction in a living organisms. The potential weakness in the research was that the human immune cells reconstituted at a lower level in the humanized mice than they would in humans. As a result the mice immune system was not completely reconstructed.

The next step for future research in the area of HIV/AIDs will be to make the T-cell receptors that will target different parts of HIV and could be used in a more genetically matched individual. This would mean a possible complete cure for the disease. At a minimum it could m`ean that more of the diseased cells would die.

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05/09/2012 6:27pm

HIV affects people like killing the people that have it early or spreading by sexual contact. The unique thing about this research is that stem cells can be genetically engineered into HIV-fighting cell that can attach and kill HIV-infected cells in a living organism. However the potencial weakness in this reasearch is that human immune cells reconstruct at a lower at a lower level in the humanized mice than in the humans so the mice immune system was mostly reconstructed. Since that the HIV might be slower to mutate in the mice than humans. So they might have to engineer a higher percentage of HIV T-cell receptors. The test subject was are mice because in the mice it reassembles faster in the mouse. in the futer they would be able to get rid of this disease. That there is finally after all these years found a cure for AIDS/HIV

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Nathan Scott
05/09/2012 6:31pm

HIV is a disease that kills white blood cells that fight diseases. This destroys the immune system so a lot of infections can cause you to get sick. This research it unique because HIV is supposed to be incurable. Now there is a chance for people who have this disease to get rid of it. You might not get enough stem cells to fight HIV. The test subject was a humanized mouse. They used this because HIV spreads similarly to humans. The next step is to make receptors to attack different parts of HIV. People with HIV can have a chance to get rid of it.

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Kaela Dorsey
05/09/2012 6:54pm

HIV/AIDS can affect the human immune system because it kills cells in your body that fight off infections which can cause terrible sickness. The reason why this certain recent research is so unique is because researchers are trying to prove that human stem cells can be genetically engineered into HIV-fighting cells.The weakness in this research is that Human immune cells reconstituted at a lower level in the humanized mice than in human hosts. The test subject was mice. They choose mice because T cells while able to destroy HIV-infected cells, do not exist in great enough quantities to clear the virus from the body. So the researchers cloned the receptor and placed it in living organisims to see the reaction.The next step for future research is beginning to make T cell receptors that target different parts of HIV and could be used in more genetically matched individuals. This research for a person who may have AIDS/HIV means that they could be cured and their life could be saved and they would be able to live a healthy and normal life.

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Adrienne Monroe
05/09/2012 7:14pm

The affect thjat is on the immune system is that the killer t cells start to destroy the immune system which means that if the are destroying your immune system you can not fight off disease. the test was to fing something that could attack the adis .

The next step for the research is to fing what defects in the T cells response. This helps the patients because it lets them know what type of new things could soon be able to help them. It also helps becauses it keeps u updadted on the new things thay are finding about there own disease.

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shanel gray
05/09/2012 7:32pm

HIV/AIDS goes and kills the body’s T-cells before they are able to multiply. This weakens the body’s defenses and a common cold becomes a deadly situation (basically, it’s any sickness that was just an example). This research is unique because it supplies genetically engineered T cells to fight the dreaded disease. It uses stem cells to create the immune cells. The weakness is that the mice they tested on have a lower level of reconstitution than humans, this could cause the HIV could mutate slower in the mice than it would in people. The test subjects were blood and organs from mice because they had to add human cells to it. This research could eradicate HIV/AIDS. the patients suffering from this disease can finally be rid of the disease they thought would be with them for the rest of their lives.


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Leah F.
05/09/2012 7:41pm

1. HIV destroys helper T cells that fight off certain kinds of infections and help the immune system to function properly. HIV uses these cells to reproduce themselves. When HIV does this, the helper T cells are destroyed and the body loses its ability to fight infections.

2. What makes this research unique is the fact that this is the very first time that engineering stem cells to create immune cells that target HIV cells is working to lower the effect of the virus living in human tissues

3. Human immune cells fell at a low level in the humanized mice than they would in a human body. Because of this, the mice's immune system were mostly reconstructed or changed. Judging off of this analysis, the mutation of the HIV cells in the mouse mutate slower than the average human. So this means that the use of many engineered T cell receptors in a human can speed the rate of the mutation of the human.

4. The test subject was a humanized mouse. They used humanized mice because HIV infection closely resembles the disease and how it progresses in humans.

5. "... this is the first step in developing a more aggressive approach in correcting the defects in the human T cells responses that allow HIV to persist in infected," says Scott G. Kitchen. The next step is that the researchers will now begin making T cells receptors that target different parts of HIV and to find the use of this cell in more genetically matched individuals.

6. This study is the base of all work for all potential use of this type of approach in fighting HIV in infected individuals that one day people may be set free from the infection.

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Marcus
05/09/2012 7:42pm

AIDS infects the white blood cells in the blood stream. It basically prevents the immune system to combat infection. So, usually people die from the disease they catch, not AIDS itself. This research is designed so that it could uniquely detect the virus in the T-cells and basically kill it. "The researchers did note a potential weakness with the study: Human immune cells reconstituted at a lower level in the humanized mice than they would in humans, and as a result, the mice's immune systems were mostly, though not completely, reconstructed. Because of this, HIV may be slower to mutate in the mice than in human hosts. So the use of multiple, engineered T cell receptors may be one way to adjust for the higher potential for HIV mutation in humans." So, basically the virus may be very slow in the mutation. They tested them on mice because they could easily insert human tissue and test it accordingly. They soon plan to research ways to help people with similar genetic structure. This could mean a cure for the AIDS patients.

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Adia Smith
05/09/2012 7:49pm

1. This is a good article, now the HIV/AIDS affects the immune system because the killer T cells which helps fight off the infections, and it identifies the T cell receptor that will guide the killer T cells to first recognize the virus and kill it, but it doesn’t exist in great quantities to get rid the virus of the body, then the virus uses the white cell to replicate itself and to spread all along the infected persons body.
2. The thing that makes this recent research unique is that a team of UCLA researchers wanted to expand on the previous research that provided the proof of the principal that says that human stem cells can be engineered genetically into fighting HIV cells, and that the team has demonstrated that the cells can really attack cells that was infected with HIV/AIDS in the living organism. To me that can give a chance to the people infected that they could live there life and not die, it is cool that people can find a way to get rid of the HIV out of the people so it won’t spread and mess up there immune system.
3.The potential weakness in this research is that the human immune cells is reconstituted at a lower level in the mice which is humanized than it would be in the humans, and that the mice’s immune system is mostly reconstructed but not completely. But because of that the HIV may be slower to mutate in the mice than it would in the host of the human. Also the use of multiple of the engineered T cells receptors can be a way to adjust so that there could be a higher potential for HIV mutation in humans.
4. The subject they use as the test subject was mice and the choice was made because the researchers engineered human blood stem cells that was similar in the current study and when they did that they found out that they could form a more mature T cell, which could attack they HIV in the tissue where the virus could reside and replicate. By that they used a humanized mouse as the surrogate model, in which the HIV infection could closely resemble the disease and its progress in humans.
5.The next step for the future research in the area of HIV/AIDS is for the researchers in UCLA to begin making T cell receptors that would target different parts of HIV and it could also be used in the more genetically matched individuals.
6. This research may mean for the HIV/AIDS patients a hope for them that could eradicate the virus for their body, which means that it would get rid of the virus in the person body for good and that they will be ok. Now isn’t that good people don’t have to live in fear and wonder if they have HIV and if they will be able to live long enough to live life the safe way.
Thank You!!!

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05/09/2012 9:17pm

HIV is a sexually transmitted disease. It weakens the body defence system against sicknesses. It is unique because their is no known cure for HIV. One weakness of this is that their is not enough of the cells that destroy the HIV virus. So scientist duplcated more of them. To test their theory out they tested it on mice. They chose this creature because the mouse is similiar to the human body. The next step for us is to try to test it on the real thing. All of the human beings that have the virus. That means ina a couple of years or less HIV will no longer be a in-cureable disease. All HIV patients have a bigger chance of living longer. Well if the research is correct, that is.

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Elijah
05/09/2012 9:36pm

The way HIV affects the human immune system is thatwn it goes in it kills off all ofthe white blood cells with its virus.

This article is so unque because alot of people are dying and have died from this disease so now that they have found away to cure it it brings new hope to victims up this S.T.D

Scientst only foun one wekkness in this theory and that is that human immune cells reconstituted at a lower level in the humanized mice than they would in humans, and as a result, the mice's immune systems were mostly though not completely reconstructed.

The test subjects were humanized mice and they were chosen because its the same results you would get with a huuman but without the risk of killing a human

The next step for the research in this area is that they will try to use a human subject to see if it actually wrks

What this means is that HIV and AIDS patients is that they might have a chance to live and not die fo this horrible disease

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Donovan Steward
05/09/2012 9:57pm

HIV/AID affect the immune system greatly. It affects it by making you more tired then what you usually are. This disease is deadly. It makes people not want to be around you. The thing that makes the research unique is how people from UCLA engineered stem cells to kill HIV.
That is good to the people who has it. The scientists are working on finding a cure. The potential weakness is that human immune cells reconstituted at a lower level in the humanized mice than they would in humans. The mice cells wouldn't be fully reconstructed during the tests. The test subject were mice. They were chosen because their immune system is like a human immune system. The next step is to find and make the cure for HIV/AIDS. The research to people with it is good. They should be hoping for a cure.

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Patrick Walker
05/09/2012 10:46pm

HIV/AIDS affects the human immune system by weakening a persons white blood cells. Some people get very sick with a commom cold or other viruses because it is hard for them to stay well. This research is unique because reserchers are experimenting with human stem cells that are being genetically made into HIV cells. This type of research sounds like it it one of a kind. The potential weakness in this research is that it may not work for all people who are HIV/AID positive. It may be very expensive for the average person to receive treatment if they do not have health insurance. The test subject was mice because the HIV infection closely resembles that of a human being.

The reseachers will begin to make T-cell receptors that target different parts of HIV. This could mean everything to the HIV positive person. It could mean the difference between life and death. They may be able to live and longer and healthier life.

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Juwan Fleming
05/09/2012 10:53pm

The HIV/AID virus attacks the white blood cells in humans. The white blood cells are used to help humans fight viruses. This researched is unique because the human stem cells can be genetically engineered into HIV fighting cells. These cells can actually attack HIV-infected cells in a living organism. The potential weakness in this research were the human immune cells reconstituted at a lower level in the humanized mice than it would have in a human. The results showed that the mice immune systems were mostly, though not completely reconstructed because the HIV may be slower to mutate in the mice than in a human hosts. Therefore, the use of multiple engineered T-cell receptors may be one way to adjust for the higher potential for HIV mutation in humans.

The test subject was for scientists to find a cure for the HIV/AID virus. The scientists took CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes - the "killer" T cells that help fight infection - from an HIV-infected individual and identified the molecule known as the T cell receptor, which guides the T cell in recognizing and killing HIV-infected cells. These T cells, while able to destroy HIV-infected cells, did not exist in great enough quantities to clear the virus from the body. The researchers cloned the receptor and used this to genetically engineer human blood stem cells. They then placed the engineered stem cells into human thymus tissue that had been implanted in mice, allowing them to study the reaction in a living organism. This choice was made because the scientist knew that the results showed the mice immune systems were mostly, though not completely reconstructed because the HIV may be slower to mutate in the mice than in a human hosts.

I believe the next step for the future research is that scientist may have a cure for the HIV/AID virus for people. This research may mean that it could be a cure for people who has the HIV/AIDS disease.

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evan laquaglia
05/10/2012 4:15pm

The immune system is a system within all vertebrates (animals with a backbone) which in general terms, is comprised of two important cell types: the B-cell and the T-cell. The B-cell is responsible for the production of antibodies (proteins which can bind to specific molecular shapes), and the T-cell (two types) is responsible either for helping the B-cell to make antibodies, or for the killing of damaged or "different" cells (all foreign cells except bacteria) within the body. The two main types of T-cells are the "helper"T-cell and the cytotoxic T-cell. The T-helper population is further divided into those which help B-cells (Th2) and those which help cytotoxic T-cells (Th1). Therefore, in order for a B-cell to do its job requires the biochemical help of Th2 helper T-cells; and, for a cytotoxic T-cell to be able to eliminate a damaged cell (say, a virally-infected cell), requires the biochemical help of a Th1 helper T-cell.
Whenever any foreign substance or agent enters our body, the immune system is activated. Both B- and T-cell members respond to the threat, which eventually results in the elimination of the substance or agent from our bodies. If the agent which gains entry is the kind which remains outside of our cells all of the time (extracellular pathogen), or much of the time (virus often released) the "best" response is the production by B-cells of antibodies which circulate all around the body in the bloodstream, and eventually bind to the agent. There are mechanisms available which are very good at destroying anything which has an antibody bound to it. On the other hand, if the agent is one which goes inside one of our cells and remains there most of the time (intracellular pathogens like viruses or certain bacteria which require the inside of one of our cells in order to live), the "best" response is the activation of cytotoxic T-cells (circulate in the bloodstream and lymph), which eliminate the agent through killing of the cell which contains the agent (agent is otherwise "hidden"). Both of these kinds of responses (B-cell or cytotoxic T-cell) of course require specific helper T-cell biochemical information as described above. Usually, both B-cell and cytotoxic T-cell responses occur against intracellular agents which provides a two-pronged attack. Normally, these actions are wonderfully protective of us. The effect of HIV on the immune system is the result of a gradual (usually) elimination of the Th1 and Th2 helper T-cell sub-populations.

in the article it says that
2. the researchers similarly engineered human blood stem cells and found that they can form mature T cells that can attack HIV in tissues where the virus resides and replicates. They did so by using a surrogate model, the humanized mouse, in which HIV infection closely resembles the disease and its progression in humans.
3.there was not a potential weakness with this study.

4.the researchers similarly engineered human blood stem cells and found that they can form mature T cells that can attack HIV in tissues where the virus resides and replicates. They did so by using a surrogate model, the humanized mouse, in which HIV infection closely resembles the disease and its progression in humans.

5."We believe that this is the first step in developing a more aggressive approach in correcting the defects in the human T cell responses that allow HIV to persist in infected people," Kitchen said i the article.
6. this means that people that people that have hiv have a cure.

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maya
05/10/2012 10:27pm

HIV affects the immune system having it doesn't help fight off infections. It causes your body to come over with a virus much easier than someone without HIV. The recent research is unique because, it lays the groundwork for new diseases and cases with HIV and it's more accurate for the future. The potential of this research is growth in this disease. Much new info. is involved in this disease. The test was a transplant patient. This research may mean for HIV pateints that your body won't be able to fight off an infection on its own.

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Charity
05/17/2012 8:46pm

If you have HIV/AIDS that is not good. HIV kills your B and T cells. Your B and T cells help fight off infections and diseases. If HIV kills them, you can become extremely sick and could possibly die. Theo new research is good because they're finding a way to help the T and B cells increase. They tried it on mice because since they are smaller its easier. It might not work as fast on humans than mice though. This means hope for most patients cause it could help improve their cells and help them not get diseases as fast.

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